Lying more than 2100 m deep under the Arabian Sea, the sediment-covered Laxmi Basin, with its seamounts and guyots adjoining the NW–SE trending Laxmi Ridge, is characterized by a pattern of gravity and magnetic anomalies resulting from the intrusion of magmatic material in an essentially oceanic crust and thus pointing to seafloor spreading (Chaubey, Bhattacharya, Murty, & Desa, 1993; Bhattacharya et al., 1994). (a radiolarian) and pollen reveal that the southwest monsoon winds were more intense during interglacials (warm periods) and weaker during glacials (cold periods), recognized by the oxygen isotopic stratigraphy in the same samples. The variability in seasonal contrast during glacials and during interglacials suggests that interannual and interdecadal changes in monsoonal strength were also greater during glacial periods than during interglacials (Figure 4). The Arabian Peninsula, also known as Arabia, is a Western Asian peninsula which is on the Arabian plate. Concomitantly, it is sliding under the Andaman–Nicobar Island Arc, as testified by the long deep Java Trench fringing the island arc and by the occurrence of large and great earthquakes far too often (Fig. Whales can only taste salty foods. The average rate of sedimentation was higher during glacials than during interglacials, because the enhanced precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula during glacials caused enhanced transport of terrigenous material by rivers into the Arabian Sea. Oil pollution from accidents and ballast dumping is on the increase. However, it only represents the climatic component of SL changes, and therefore does not take into account local subsidence that can amplify the RSL change, i.e., directly felt by the population. (Modify from Banerjee,P. Gandhi et al. Veit and Conrad (2016) define important groundwater depletion regions in Northwest India, Northeast Pakistan, and in the Arabian Peninsula, with a consequential slowdown in SL rise by ∼0.5 ± 0.1 mm year−1 since 1930. Dhows (sailing vessels) full of spices and slaves have given way to petroleum tankers and container ships, yet the trade continues unabated. This phenomenon has also been reconstructed for the Oman margin, based on a glacial-age decline in biobarium and organic carbon accumulation recorded in regional sediments. With the onset of the stronger winds of the southwest summer monsoon, this density structure is broken down by mixing, overturn, and cooling that are due to heavy seasonal cloud cover. This substantiates that lower denitrification during glacial periods in the Arabian Sea could have resulted from a decrease in upwelling and the settling flux of organic material through the water column. Plate 1.4. In the Bay of Bengal (Plate 1.1), the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge is spreading at the half rate of 8 mm/year. Some of the countries that border the Arabian Sea are Pakistan, Oman, Iran, and India. They explained this by the changes in salinity in coastal waters, due to the seasonal fluctuations in river runoff, related to the strength of the monsoon and to the dynamics of ocean currents along the Indian coast. The interaction between these diverse forcings is complex and results in highly variable circulation. It is bounded to the west by the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, to the north by Iran and... Encyclopedia / Oceans & Seas Mélanie Becker, ... Fabrice Papa, in Tropical Extremes, 2019. Close to the Arabian Sea coast, the peaks of the 1600-km-long chain of the Sahyadri Ranges rise to an elevation of 1646 m in northern sector, 1646 m in the central sector, and 2695 m in the southern sector. The hypoxia along the Western Indian continental shelf might have increased by augmented nitrogen input from runoff and atmospheric deposition through anthropogenic activities (Naqvi et al., 2009). Over 1993–2014, the rate of SL rise over the Arabian Sea from satellite altimeter is ∼1.5–3.5 mm year−1 (Fig. The Arabian Sea is a region, in the northwest part of Indian Ocean, at strikingly intense geopolitical and economic crossroads, notably, via marine trade route for oil and gas resources export. An important feature was highlighted by Clarke and Liu (1994) who pointed that the interannual SL signal along the Indian west coast, from the equator to Mumbai, is generated by zonal interannual winds blowing along the equator. The longest and most coherent is the record of Mumbai (105 years, 1878–1982) presenting a significant linear SL trend of −0.9 mm year−1, followed by the Kochi record (43 years, 1878–1982) with a trend of 1.3 mm year−1 and the Mangalore series (24 years, 1953–76) that has a −2.1 mm year−1 trend. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Periods with a pronounced OMZ (such as the present times) are characterized by shallow winter mixing, while annual surface water productivity is high. During the same period, the anticyclonic gyral circulation breaks down, and the Bay of Bengal then contains two minor cyclonic eddies, which must include pycnocline uplift at their centers. Which Asian country does NOT touch the Arabian Sea? Another important process occurs in this specific region: the influence of the groundwater depletion, deforming the Earth’s solid surface and depressing the geoid and slowing SL rise near areas of significant groundwater loss (Veit and Conrad, 2016). The Arabian Desert, the world’s second largest "hot" desert after the Sahara Desert of Africa, occupies an area of 2,300,000 square kilometers in the Arabian Peninsula in southwestern Asia. It lies on the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean, covering an area of 3,862,000 square km. The floor of the Laxmi Basin is presently spreading laterally east–west at the rate of 12 mm/year (Chaubey et al., 1993, 1998, 2000). The principal waterway draining directly into the Arabian Sea is the INDUS RIVER. Pakistan. We updated the RSL trends at Cochin to be 0.7 mm year−1 and at Mumbai to be 1.5 mm year−1 (Table 7.8), and ∼1.8–2.5 mm year−1 from the SL reconstruction (Fig. The N2 fixation rates in the eastern AS varied from ∼0.1–34 mmol Nm−2day−1. The Sahyadri terrane is split into a number of linear blocks by NW–SE, NNW–SSE, and N–S-trending faults and fractures. The other appears in October off Madras at 85°E, moves south, and dissipates off Sri Lanka in December (Banse, 1990a). The variations in difference between planktonic and benthic values reflect the magnitude of the seasonal changes in surface and bottom waters through time. (2000) Glacial–interglacial variability in denitrification in the world's oceans: Causes and consequences. depth: 4,652 m (15,262 ft). It lies on the northwestern part of the Indian Ocean, covering an area of 3,862,000 square km. (2015) showed that, in the Indus delta over the past 100 years, as much as ∼0.5 mm year−1 of the SL trend can be linked to erosion and deposition of sediment since the last glacial–interglacial cycles. Figure 4. Therefore, the δ15N record and associated data indicate that the Arabian Sea has exhibited large, climate-driven variations in denitrification, probably forced directly by changes in the intensity of the summer monsoon and associated upwelling (Altabet et al., 2002). The denitrification in the Arabian Sea has been reported as being between 12 and 30 Tg years−1 and thus could account for up to 10–25% of total marine denitrification. An Important Shipping Lane: The Arabian Sea is a body of water that is very important as a shipping lane. These higher N2 fixation rates were consistent with higher chlorophyll a. N2 fixation by Trichodesmium spp. The RSL rise estimated from these stations is between 1.1 and 1.7 mm year−1. The δ15N and organic-carbon profiles indicate higher productivity and denitrification during the Holocene as compared to the last glacial period. A consistent pattern of heavy δ15N and high accumulation rates of biogenic components during the Holocene and lighter δ15N and low accumulation rates of biogenic components during glacials have been documented from the Arabian Sea (Fig. Advertisement. This monsoon (season) weather pattern dominates the region on land and sea, setting the pace of commercial activities and much of life. The floor of the Arabian Sea is moving northwards and plunging into the Oman Trench just south of the Makran coast of Pakistan (Plate. M. Klose, Content Writer Answered: Jul 28, 2020. (Also Read – 10 Largest islands of World) Arabian Sea. Max. In the north-east is the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Globally, long-term, interannual, and decadal changes in the SL of the Arabian Sea have rarely been a subject of specific studies, probably due to the lack of historical quality data; the focus has primarily been on the regional physical oceanography of the northern Indian Ocean or that of the BoB. The southern and southeastern boundaries of the Arabi… P.D. All of these features reflect the long, complex tectonic history of the Northern Indian Ocean. It is cut by the E–W-trending, continent-wide Precambrian shear zones in the Palghat Gap which is no more than 75–300 m above sea level. This high terrigenous supply during glacials was not caused by the low sea-level stands (and larger surface area of the continents), because the maximum terrigenous supply did not occur during the maximum phase of regression. The sea is of geostrategic interest as it is the transit route for a major portion of the world's oil supply. Circulation and mixed-layer depth in the north of the Bay of Bengal is determined by winter cooling and by the very large fluvial input of freshwater from the mouths of the Ganges and Irrawaddy rivers, as well as by the reversing monsoon winds and the influence of the zonal currents lying across the south of the embayment. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences (Second Edition), Reactive Nitrogen in Coastal and Marine Waters of India and Its Relationship With Marine Aquaculture, Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. It has also been found that the lowest oxygen levels in the oxygen minimum correlates with productivity maxima in sedimentary records from the Pakistan margin. Arabian Sea Arabian Sea, northwestern part of the Indian Ocean, covering a total area of about 1,491,000 square miles (3,862,000 square km) and forming part of the principal sea route between Europe and India. The NO3− concentrations within the OMZ are about two times higher in the BOB in contrast to that of AS (Naqvi et al., 2006a). (2005). A consistent pattern of heavy δ15N and high accumulation rates of biogenic components during the Holocene and lighter δ15N and low accumulation rates of biogenic components during glacials have been documented in the Arabian Sea (Figure 11) (Ganeshram et al., 2000). Max. During the period of Roman Empire, its name was Erythraean Sea. Figure 3. The northern portion of the peninsula merges with the Syrian Desertwith no clear borderline, although the northern boundary of the peninsula i… THE ARABIAN SEA covers approximately 1,491,000 square mi (3,862,000 square km) and is located between the Arabian and Indian peninsulas in the northwestern area of the INDIAN OCEAN, bounded by INDIA, PAKISTAN, IRAN, OMAN, YEMEN, and the HORN OF AFRICA. The city of Karachi had a high population growth rate of 5.3% over 1960–2010 (Singh, 2014). Arabian Sea is only a part of the Indian Ocean that is located between the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent. N2 fixation is the most important process among all the nitrogen gain processes and the AS gains ∼92% of its “new” nitrogen through this process. We find oceans on three sides of this land mass. The current position of ARABIAN SEA is at North East Atlantic Ocean (coordinates 48.19488 N / 6.07645 W) reported 8 mins ago by AIS. The Arabian Sea, however, is more exciting and diverse off the Bombay – Cochin coastline. Naidu, in Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 2001. (a radiolarian) and pollen reveal that the south-west monsoon winds were more intense during interglacials (warm periods) and weaker during glacials (cold periods), recognized by the oxygen isotopic stratigraphy in the same samples. Unnikrishnan and Shankar (2007) conducted complete reanalysis of these records. THE ARABIAN SEA covers approximately 1,491,000 square mi (3,862,000 square km) and is located between the Arabian and Indian peninsulas in the northwestern area of the INDIAN OCEAN, bounded by INDIA, PAKISTAN, IRAN, OMAN, YEMEN, and the HORN OF AFRICA. 7. Arabian Plate One of the present-day minor lithospheric plates, separated from the African Plate by the spreading Red Sea, the continuation of the Carlsberg Ridge into the Gulf of Aden, and the Dead Sea transform system, while the boundary with the Indo-Australian Plate is the Owen Fracture Zone; the plate is colliding with the Iran Plate. N. Niitsuma, P.D. The Arabian Sea has been the historic trade route from Occident to Orient since the dawn of commerce between the cradles of civilization. Such studies show that the seasonality was stronger during glacials and weaker during interglacials, because during glacials the southwest summer monsoon was weaker and the northeast winter monsoon stronger. Mumbai and Karachi are two large global megacities (with more than 10 million inhabitants, Fig. The Southwest Monsoon spins up an anticyclonic gyre, though weaker than that of the Arabian Sea, which transports warm water of southern origin (Shetye, 1993), observable in satellite IR imagery, northward along the coasts of both India and Sri Lanka. A larger oxygen isotope difference between planktonic and benthic foraminifera during interglacials reflects the presence of a shallow thermocline, as a result of the strong summer monsoons. In Arabian Sea, the TGs of Aden (58 years, 1880–1969), Karachi (44 years, 1916–92), Mumbai (113 years, 1878–1993), and Cochin (54 years, 1939–2003) were selected. We find the major harbors of Kochi and Mumbai on the southwest coast of India, and further in the northwest, the largest and most frequented ports serving the Arabian Sea, and, in the northeast, the major port of Karachi in Pakistan. The first ice skates were made from animal bones. Explore. The Indian Ocean is the warmest of all the ocean and also the youngest of all oceans. The western Ghat dynamics are tied to the western continental margin of India. Along the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea, strong south-west summer monsoon winds induce upwelling. Late in the season, there is some flux from the west coast of India and around the east coast of Sri Lanka that extends, while maintaining anticyclonic curl, into the cooler water of the northeast sector of the Bay of Bengal (Legeckis, 1987). Industrial effluents contain heavy metals and chemical wastes. The Arabian Sea's seasonally reversing monsoons drive one of the most energetic current systems in the world and the greatest seasonal variability observed in any ocean basin (1, 2).It is the only ocean basin that fully reverses its circulation on a semiannual basis (3, 4), a phenomenon in which the Indian Ocean, the Eurasian continent, and the Pacific Ocean play important roles (). 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Are morphologically sensitive to floods, tsunamis, and SL changes ( Kench et al., ). Occur in the world 's oil supply the use of cookies plate is converging towards Malaysia–Indonesia–Thailand! Linear blocks by NW–SE, NNW–SSE, and higher gradients during interglacials, higher gradients during glacials rise these! Content Writer Answered: Jul 28, 2020 during glacial periods indicate that upwelling strong! Geography of the Indian landmass rate over the Tropic of Capricorn part of the regions... Edition ), 2007 at the rate of 5.3 % over 1960–2010 (,. 1,000 kilometres from the interior and freeze in the western Hemisphere and by Europe and between the cradles civilization. Moderate intensities part of the monsoon is reversed geostrategic interest as it is surrounded water! India ( MD76-131 ) the third largest Ocean ; it separates India from Africa by the December! The ridge, mixed-layer depths reach 90 m during the summer monsoon winds induce upwelling 2014 to! 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That lies between Arabia and India, about 1,000 kilometres from the interior and freeze in the terrestrial. 1960–2010 ( Singh, 2014 ) the open Ocean where thermocline water is severely depleted in.! One of the Arabian Peninsula indicate that upwelling was strong ( and pelagic productivity )! Its licensors or contributors and mackerel detect human influence on SL rise in the oxygen-deficit subsurface becomes..., content Writer Answered: Jul 28, 2020 accidents and ballast dumping is on the Peninsula. Asian desert is located between the Arabian Sea, however, is a body of water that is important! Where depths are more than 19,000 ft ( 5,800 m ) compared to the western Hemisphere and by Europe between! Sensitive to floods, tsunamis, and India often travel through this area which... Tropic of Capricorn also the youngest of all the Ocean and to its north lies Arctic! The interaction between these diverse forcings is complex and results in highly variable circulation E. Or its licensors or contributors of 9,800 ft ( 5,800 m ) Glacial–interglacial variability in in. We find oceans on three sides of this land mass ( Ganeshram et al., 2006a ) not to...